Ice cream is a very complex matrix. Its composed by foam particularly frozen foam, made of small bits of ice and air bubbles. It is also an emulsion of fat droplets spread through a solution of water and sugar. This creates air bubbles that are trapped by fat globules (partially coalesced creating a sort of network.
Quality of the air trapped depends on the ice cream technology (industrial; controlled blown air overrun higher than 100%. artisanal uncontrolled blown air – overrun maximum 50%) and on the types and quantities of emulsifiers, fats, proteins, and stabilizers. Another important factor involved is the aging which allows fat coalescences and other stabilization processes
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